Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

Posted by / 21-Aug-2017 17:39

For those two regions several types of dividing progenitors were identified .

The most studied modulators have been summarized in the following tables.Two criteria are typically used to define a cell as a stem cell:1) the potential of self-renewal and 2) the ability to give rise to multiple distinct cell types.NPCs isolated from the adult brain are classified as a ‘’multipotent’’ cell because they can differentiate into the the three main lineage cell types of the nervous system (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes) when cultured in vitro.In addition there is a high level of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (considered part of the peripheral nervous system) where olfactory receptor neurons are constantly replaced.The process appears more widespread but still limited in other vertebrate classes, having been described in select brain regions of certain birds, fish and reptiles.

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The "rediscovery" of neurogenesis in the 1990's was due in large part to the observation that the levels of new neurons in the adult hippocampus are modulated by a range of factors, including stress (Gould et al., 1990), aging (Kuhn et al., 1996), environment (Kempermann et al., 1998), and activity (van Praag et al., 1999).

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